The first evidence showing human settlement date back to the Neolithic era. A few potsherds and some remnants of houses testify that the Acropolis was inhabited continuously from 5000 BC and after. Around 1400 BC by 1000 BC It built a high wall, with huge blocks and a palace, to the point where he later erected the Erechtheion. Inside the wall, called Pelasgian, altars, shrines and a source, called the Hourglass.The townspeople, who began to develop under the Acropolis, took refuge in it, when faced enemy attacks. Her character begins to be strongly religious, as the residents of nearby settlements believe that the common center of worship must be attached thereto. So the first church was built, dedicated to the mythical king Erechtheus, the Erechtheion. This temple uses limestone as raw material, and today there are the foundations. In the mid-7th BC c. built in Hekatompedon, so called because it had a length of 100 feet, the position the Parthenon was later built.The tyrant Pisistratus builds a new Hekatompedon where the old, the 530, while a boost in the decoration of the Acropolis, building temples and altars to gods, demigods and heroes. When the Athenians have established democratic systems, they began to build new temples to brighten their city so destroyed the Hekatompedon to build the first Parthenon. The church did not end, because in 480 BC Persians occupied Athens and burned the Acropolis, destroying everything and looting valuable artworks.

 The Athenians, just returned to the city, they began to plan the reconstruction of the Acropolis, while, to insure against future raids, fortify the Propylaea. Then they buried the remains of the destructive fury of the Persians, they like to bury the dead and used pieces of debris as material for new buildings. He who connected his name with the classic form of the rock was Pericles, who with the help deserving architects such as Makedonitissa Kallikratis and unsurpassed sculptor Phidias created the greatest monument of antiquity, an artistic whole which caused the admiration the ancients. It built the Parthenon, which ended in 438 BC, after the Propylaea launched in 432, and the temple of Athena Nike, a small masterpiece that started to be built in 456, was completed in 425. The last building built, in the maelstrom of the Peloponnesian war, was the Erechtheion. This temple was built in 421 as in 407.The fact that during a terrible war, the Athenians did not stop to build, demonstrate the importance it had for them the building project of the Acropolis. Apart from them, which was the most important buildings, the rock of the Acropolis and other enclosed, like "Vrafroneio", dedicated to Artemis and Chalkotheke. On slopes also were built the Odeon, the Asklepion and theater of Dionysos. Then several Maecenas, Hellenistic kings and Roman emperors sent the Holy Rock several specials, but can not be compared with the statues of the classical period. 
In honor of the emperor Augustus and Rome a circular temple was built, and a marble staircase and the gate used today for entrance were made later, and around 180m.Ch. built the Small Propylaea were fortified. At the time of M. Constantine, Acropolis begins to decline, as the old religion loses its glamor. The religious character remains unchanged, however, the Parthenon was converted into a church of Our Lady, the Propylaea in Temple of the Archangels and the Erechtheion temple at Mary.The Frankish space becomes residence of Frankish rulers, the Propylaea formed in palaces, while a part of them built a tall square tower. However, the overall view of the Acropolis no changes. And when the Turks occupied Athens, the Parthenon, naturally it became a mosque. The Turks built houses on the Acropolis and used various buildings for ammunition depots.In 1655, lightning blew the Propylaea, and shortly after pulled down the temple of Athena Nike to make him Pillbox. But the biggest disaster was in 1687, when the Venetian Morosini, besieging the Acropolis. A bomb fell on the Parthenon, destroying a large part of the church. And then, when it managed to capture the rock plundered their treasures, as they had done before him so many conquerors.And the Erechtheion slowly destroyed because the Turks used the marbles to make lime, which was a raw material in the building. The devastation continues and in 1800 the English Elgin, bribing the Turkish commander of the Acropolis, stole various sculptures that and moved back home. Fortunately after the release has been international interest in the protection and restoration of this monument of humanity. Greek archaeologists began the first excavations, while demolishing cleared landscape that did not belong to the classical and later period. The Ludwig Ross restored the Wingless Victory and in 1874 began an extensive and rigorous scientific rehabilitation program.This program continues today, while another problem is air pollution, which corrodes and destroys slowly marbles